Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The conversations and thequestionswillbespokenonlyonce.Afteryouhearaconversationandthequestionaboutit, read the four possible answers on your paper, and decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.
1.A. Teacher. B. Repairman. C. Shop assistant. D. Doctor.
2.A. At home. B. At school. C. In the hospital. D. On the street.
3.A. His new job is too difficult for him.
B. He is used to his new job.
C. He is still trying to get used to his new job.
D. He doesn’t like his new job.
4. A. 15 dollars. B. 14 dollars. C. 10 dollars. D. 12 dollars.
5. A. She is surprised at her mum’s coming back so soon.
B. She thinks that she is too slow.
C. She wants the man to be quick.
D. She will go out herself.
6. A. She used to be in poor health. B. She was popular among boys.
C. She was somewhat overweight. D. She didn’t do well at high school.
7. A. At the airport. B. In a restaurant.
C. In a booking office. D. At the hotel reception.
8. A. Teaching her son by herself.
B. Having confidence in her son.
C. Asking the teacher for extra help.
D. Telling her son not to worry.
9. A. Have a short break. B. Take two weeks off.
C. Continue her work outdoors. D. Go on vacation with the man.
10. A. He is taking care of his twin brother.
B. He has been feeling ill all week.
C. He is worried about Rod.
D. He has been in perfect condition.
Directions: In Section B, you will hear two short passages, and you will be asked three questions on each of the passages. The passages will be read twice, but the questions will be spoken only once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard.
Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage.
11. A. Lawyer. B. Computer programmer.
C. Blogger. D. Firefighter.
12. A. 21% of all the employers. B. 1% of American teenagers.
C. 79% of all the employers. D. 1% of American adults.
13. A. With many bloggers, America is sure to win her reputation in the world.
B. Washington is the city which has most bloggers in America.
C. There are fewer employees of newspapers than a few years ago.
D. The topics of blogging cover almost every area of people’s daily life.
Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following news.
14. A. In the Town Hall. B. In a community.
C. In somebody’s house. D. In a stadium.
15. A. The equal job, the equal pay.
B. The best way of cooking and cleaning.
C. The women’s liberation movement.
D. Women’s ability to be good leaders.
16. A. Women’s responsibility of child raising.
B. Women’s ability to do anything important.
C. Not only concrete issues but also attitude and beliefs.
D. How to take jobs and help others.
Directions: In Section C, you will hear two longer conversations. The conversations will be read twice. After you hear each conversation, you are required to fill in the numbered blanks with the information you have heard. Write your answers on your answer sheet.
Blanks 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form. Write ONE WORD for each answer.
Place for next show:
In New York.
Time for next show:
Place for the woman’s work:
At the __18__.
The woman’s purpose to San Francisco:
Driving in a big __20__.
Blanks 21 through 24 are based on the following conversation.
Complete the form. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Coastal Redwood Trees
a. __21__bark against fires.
b. a liking for a __22__ climate.
Location of the tallest trees:
Along the __23__California coast.
Height of the tallest trees:
More than 350 feet.
Age of the oldest recorded tree:
II.Grammar and vocabulary
Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
( A )
Exploration of the Poles
The North Pole and South Pole are at the top and bottom of the Earth, (25)_______________you won’t find an actual pole to mark the place. The poles are the northernmost and southernmost points on the planet. The poles are the most unfriendly environments on Earth.
In the early 1900s, explorers competed to become the first (26)_______________ ( reach ) the South Pole. From 1901 to 1904, British naval officer Robert Scott made the first attempt. Scott got (27)_______________ ( far ) south than anyone had been before, but he failed to reach the pole.
In 1909, Ernest Shackleton of Britain led an expedition across Antarctica on sleds pulled by dogs. They were only about 100 miles (about 160 kilometers) from the South Pole (28)_______________ a shortage of food forced them to turn back.
Scott finally reached the South Pole in January 1912. But (29)_______________ ( disappoint ) Scott found that Roald Amundsen had beaten him by one month. Amundsen’s expedition arrived at the pole in December 1911. Amundsen was (30)_______________ experienced Arctic explorer, and he had made careful preparations. Scott and his companions died of injury, cold, and hunger on their return from the pole.
In 1914, Shackleton (31)_______________ ( plan ) another expedition to the South Pole. But his ship was crushed by ice, and he had to cross 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) of freezing sea in a tiny boat to survive. Shackleton then returned to save his strandedmen. It was one of the greatest rescue feats in history.
In 1929, Arctic explorer Richard Byrd became the first person who flew over the South Pole. Byrd later pioneered the idea of(32)_______________ ( set )up permanent stations for scientific research in Antarctica. A station called the Amundsen-Scott Base has stood at the South Pole since 1977.
( B )
Teaching in front of a camera
Wageningen University is keen on developing forms of education that reach people all over the world. The basics of the course topics are covered in short films and three-minute to seven-minute presentations (33)_______________ ( use ) techniques such as animationand voiceover ( 画外音 ).
The online Master’s programmes are quite different from the large-scale MOOCs (在线课程 ), explains Busstra. In the Master’s courses, the short “knowledge clips” ( 短片 ) dealing with the essential topics(34)_______________ ( link ) to an assignment directly to help the students actively absorbthe knowledge themselves. Teachers can also use them to test (35)_______________ the material has come across well. Busstra says: “ The teacher has to think up new ways of working---getting students to make a film clip, for instance,(36)_______________ _______________ they present a research setup they have thought up themselves, or to respond to someone else’s idea, or to work on a document in groups.” The students also get the chance to post a question while they are watching an online film---equivalent of putting your hand up during a lecture. Fellow students and teachers can then answer the question online. “ There are a lot of misunderstandings about online education, ” says Busstra, “ one of them being (37)_______________ there is only one way communication. (38)_______________people are gradually gaining confidence in it. It will stay typically Wageningen: small-scale and based on interaction and group work.”
The investment (39)_______________ online learning is paying off in the regular education programme too, according to Busstra. Students in Wageningen can pick up the basics at home through the knowledge clips. During lectures, teachers(40)_______________ then provide more in-depth analysis, talk about their own work and supervise students more personally. “Increasingly, on-campus and online education will no longer be two separate worlds,” expects Busstra.Section B
Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
We are familiar with pop culture, but what is peep culture? In pop culture, we turn on the TV and watch our favouritecelebrities __41__ us with their performances. In peep culture, we turn on the computer, we move through people’s lives on reality TV, blogs, Face book and You Tube. Instead of getting our entertainment from scripted performances, we get our entertainment from peeping into other people’s lives. It can be friends and family. But it’s just likely to be people we have never met from around the world.
Suddenly, we spend all of our time __42__ other people. And we also invite them to watch us! People __43__ themselves to get attention and to feel like they are part of a community. In peep culture, ordinary people are turned into celebrities.
This has never happened before, turning the spotlight on __44__regular people. There aren’t secrets anymore. The notion of private life has changed.
As society has become __45__ fast-paced, most of us are really unaware of these changes in our lives. We are moving into a time when our __46__ personality is going to be more important than our actual physical __47__. What we have online is going to be more important than what we do offline. We are now socially judged by our virtual profiles.
In the age of “ peep culture, ” a tell-all, show-all, know-all digital phenomenon is __48__ changing notions of privacy, individuality, security, and even humanity. Susan Boyle became a(n) __49__ celebrity because of peep culture. The entire world was staring at her after her __50__ from a resident of a small Scottish town to a global celebrity. We like the story because she’s like a movie,but she’s real.
Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
New research offers fresh insight on when to launch a product or service, and shows that being first to market isn’t always a competitive advantage.
In 2004, David Cohen had an idea for a social network for mobile phones that would connect users in the real world. His company, called iContact, launched a beta version ( 测试版 ), and seemed ready to tap the much publicized mobile software market. Cohen, then 36, had already founded a successful software company. __51__, after 18 months, he was unable to get phone carriers to distribute his software, and he closed the company.
Bets on mobile applications didn’t begin to __52__ until Apple’s iPhone app store opened the market in 2008.
Conventional __53__ says being first to market creates a competitive advantage. Reality is more complicated. Market opportunities are __54__ opening and closing, and a hit idea at one point could be a failure a year earlier or a yawning “ me too ” business a year later. It’s tough---likely __55__ ---to identify the best moment to enter a market, but common sense dictates new entrepreneurs ( 创业人 ) can improve their odds ( 机会 ) if they __56__ how much they bear to gain or lose by waiting.
New academic research suggests one way entrepreneurs can __57__whether they should enter a market first or wait on the sidelines. The decision depends on how hostile ( 不利的 ) the learning environment is; __58__, how much entrepreneurs can learn by observing other players before they __59__, compared to what they learn from participating after they enter, according to Moren Levesque, an entrepreneurship researcher at the University of Waterloo. Levesque, along with professors Maria Minniti of Southern Methodist University and Dean Shepherd of Indiana University, used a mathematical __60__ to weigh the risks and benefits of entering the market early. Their research is among the first to explore “ how different learning environments may influence the entry behavior of entrepreneurs.”
The key to the academics’ findings on timing is this: In a hostile learning environment, entrepreneurs gain relatively __61__ benefit by watching others. For example, if the relevant knowledge is __62__intellectual property, studying the market before entering wouldn’t yield much advantage. In these situations, the trade-off ( 权衡利弊 ) __63__ entering early. But in less hostile learning environments, where entrepreneurs gain valuable information __64__to increase their success just by watching other companies, companies benefit from waiting and learning lessons from earlier players. IContact’s successors, for example, may have learned from watching the company’s trouble in getting mobile networks to distribute their software, a barrier that was __65__ by the iPhone’s app store.
51. A. Otherwise B. Moreover C.However D. Therefore
52. A. pay in B. pay back C. pay for D. pay off
53. A. custom B. wisdom C. habit D. experience
54. A. completely B. confusingly C. constantly D. increasingly
55. A. impossible B. possible C. potential D. manageable
56. A. imagine B. interpret C. weigh D. measure
57. A. value B. evaluate C. ensure D. convince
58. A. after all B. as a result C.in other words D.in addition
59. A. launch B. campaign C. strike D. function
60. A. version B. pattern C. example D. model
61. A. few B. many C. little D. much
62. A. provided B. protected C. shared D. improved
63. A. favors B. dislikes C. opposes D. concerns
64. A. unlikely B. likely C. unbelievable D. questionable
65. A. lowered B. created C. resolved D. removed